Tuesday, 24 November 2015
Conel Alexander studies meteorites to find the clues they provide to discern what went on before and during the formation of our solar system. He is particularly interested in the analysis of chondrules, millimeter-size spherical objects that are the dominant constituent of the most primitive types of meteorites. Alexander develops techniques to measure precisely the isotopic species of the elements potassium, iron, magnesium, and oxygen in meteorite samples. His other major interest is presolar materials preserved in meteorites. Alexander received his B.S. in Geology in 1983 from Imperial College, University of London and his Ph.D. in Experimental Physics from the University of Essex in 1987.
Alan Boss's theoretical research includes the formation of binary and multiple stars, triggered collapse of the presolar cloud, mixing and transport processes in protoplanetary disks, including thermal processing of particles during their journeys, and the formation of gas giant and ice giant protoplanets. His observational works centers on the Carnegie Astrometric Planet Search project, which has been underway for the last decade at Carnegie's Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. Boss received his B.S. in 1973 from the University of South Florida, his M.A. in 1975 and his Ph.D. in Physics in 1979 from the University of California, Santa Barbara.
Dina Bower’s research is centered on finding and establishing reliable biosignatures in ancient rocks on Earth and other planets. She attempts to understand the role of microbes in the diagenesis of Fe-Ti-oxides by undertaking experiments that simulate diagenetic conditions. Currently, she is studying ~1.9 Ga Gunflint chert samples collected from four different sites of the Gunflint Formation.
Paul Butler's research interests include observational astrophysics, stellar spectroscopy, precision Doppler instrumentation, extrasolar planets, Sun-like stars, supergiants and Cepheid variable stars. Butler received his B.A. in Physics in 1985, his B.S. in Chemistry in 1986, and his M.S., Physics in 1989 from San Francisco State University and obtained his Ph.D. in Astronomy from the University of Maryland in 1993.
John Chambers models the dynamics of newly found giant planetary systems to understand their formation history and to determine the best way to predict the existence and frequency of smaller Earth-like worlds. As part of this research he explores the basic physical, chemical, and dynamical aspects that led to the formation of our own solar systeman event that is still poorly understood. His ultimate goal is to determine if similar processes could be at work in the newly discovered planetary systems, which could then help predict smaller, extrasolar bodies that might harbor life. Chambers received his B.A. in Physics in 1990 from University College, Oxford University and his Ph.D. in Astronomy from Manchester University in 1994.
Henderson (Jim) Cleaves' research in organic geochemistry is concerned principally with abiological organic synthesis, the question of how life arose on Earth, and methods for detecting Life on other planets. Presently he is involved in a project with Robert Hazen regarding the interactions of organic compounds with mineral surfaces.
George D. Cody specializes in chemical-structural analyses of solid phase organics. His research is focused on determining the diagenetic reactions that define organic sediment maturation. Other interests include examining the molecular structure of extraterrestrial organic solids contained within carbonaceous chondritic meteorites and more recently, comets. He received a Ph.D in geosciences from Pennsylvania State University in 1992, and a B.S. in geology from University of Massachusetts at Amherst in 1982.
Celia's research is focused on fluorine, chlorine and trace element fractionation during arc magma genesis. During her doctoral studies at the Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans of Clermont-Ferrand (France), she investigated F and Cl partition coefficients between mantle minerals and basaltic melts in anhydrous and hydrous systems at mantle wedge conditions. She is interested in substitution mechanisms of halogens in upper mantle minerals, the effect of melt polymerization on partition coefficients and geochemical applications of partition coefficients and, in particular, during arc magma genesis. She is presently collaborating with Bjorn Mysen to study the effect of carbon on halogen and trace element partition coefficients in basaltic systems at mantle wedge conditions.
Jennifer Eigenbrode is a biogeochemist and geologist with expertise in organic and isotope geochemistry and interests in astrobiology. She specializes in the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) in the analysis of lipids and other hydrocarbons in rocks, ice, and biological samples.
Brad Foley's research is focused on mantle dynamics and the evolution of terrestrial planets, with a particular interest in the dynamical origin of plate tectonics on Earth, whether exoplanets would be expected to have plate tectonics, and how tectonics influences climate and planetary habitability. Brad primarily uses theoretical models, both numerical and analytical, to explore the underlying physics of mantle convection and plate tectonics. His Ph.D. research at Yale University covered how factors such as surface temperature, planet size, and mantle temperature, influence the likelihood of plate tectonics, and how plate tectonics initiates.
Mihaela Glamoclija's research relates to general area of microbe-mineral interaction, utilization, and development of methods and concepts that may aid in the search, detection, and assessment of fossilized microbial life on Earth as a guide to the search for ancient life on Mars.
Alexander F. Goncharov is a senior staff scientist at the Geophysical Laboratory. His research focuses on examining the properties of materials under extreme conditions of pressure, temperature, and strain rate and its applications to planetary science, geophysics, geochemistry, and synthesis of novel materials by design. He received a Ph.D. in physics from the Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Spectroscopy in 1983, and a combined M.A. and M.S. in physics from the Moscow Institute for Physics and Technology in 1979.
Weifu's primary research interests concern acquiring fundamental understandings of important geochemical processes, through controlled experiments and theoretical modeling. His current research at the Geophysical Laboratory focuses on studies of the mass independent sulfur isotope fractionations associated with sulfur dioxide ultraviolet photolysis.
Erik Hauri studides isotopic and chemical evolution of the Earth's deep interior, modeling of flow and melting in mantle plumes, high-pressure experimental petrology and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Hauri received his B.S. in 1988 from the University of Miami and his Ph.D. in Geochemistry from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in 1992.
Robert M. Hazen's research focuses on aspects of the coevolving geosphere and biosphere, especially in the context of Earth's evolving mineralogy. His group investigates interactions among organic biomolecules and mineral surfaces, mineral-mediated chemistry in the context of origins of life, and the emergence of pre-biotic chemical complexity. In recent years he has introduced "mineral evolution," which is the study of Earth's changing near-surface mineralogy through deep time, and "mineral ecology," which focuses on statistical aspects of the diversity and distribution of minerals on terrestrial planets. He obtained a Ph.D. in mineralogy and crystallography from Harvard University in 1975, and a B.S. and S.M. in earth science from Massachusetts Institute for Technology in 1970 and 1971. For more information see: http://hazen.gl.ciw.edu
Russell J. Hemley is a senior staff scientist of the Geophysical Laboratory. His research examines the properties of materials at high-pressures and its applications to geophysics, geochemistry and planetary science, as well as to theoretical condensed-matter physics and chemistry. He uses optical spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and diamond-cell techniques to conduct high-pressure experimental and theoretical studies in condensed-matter physics, earth and planetary science and materials science. He obtained a Ph.D. and M.A. in physical chemistry from Harvard University in 1983 and 1980, and received a B.A. in chemistry and philosophy from Wesleyan University in 1977.
Adrienne Kish is an astrobiologist with an interest in the microbiology and molecular biology of extremophiles exposed to the types of environmental conditions found on planetary bodies such as Mars and the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn.
Yoko Kebukawa’s research interests include organic matter in meteorites and its relationship to the parent body processes, analyzed thorough spectroscopic characterization of organic matter and kinetic heating experiments.
Bjørn O. Mysen's areas of research include experimental high-temperature and pressure analyses, investigations into the properties and processes of rock-formation and related materials with an emphasis on melting. He is also interested in examining the phase relations of mantle materials, fluids in melting processes, the properties and structure of melts and glasses, element partitioning between minerals, fluids and melts at high-pressures and temperatures. He obtained a Ph.D in geochemistry from Pennsylvania State University in 1974, and a BSc and MA from University of Oslo in 1969 and 1971.
Larry Nittler studies the origin and evolution of stars, the Galaxy, and the Solar System, both through laboratory analysis of extraterrestrial materials like meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and through planetary remote sensing via spacecraft. As Deputy Principal Investigator on NASA’s MESSENGER mission to Mercury, Nittler is playing a leading role in determining the chemical composition of the Solar System’s innermost planet. Nittler received his B.A. in Physics from Cornell University in 1991 and his Ph. D. in Physics from Washington University in 1996.
Gefei joined the Geophysical Laboratory IT group in September 2008. He has been working in IT administration since 1990 and his interest in programing dates back to the 80's. Gefei is experienced in HPC computing, CISC system programing, software engineering, instrument control, netbotics, and IT services. He is enthusiastic to provide the GL staff with various excellent IT-related services.
Hanika Rizo is currently a postdoctoral associate in Carnegie’s Department of Terrestrial Magnetism. She is interested in how planets formed and how they evolved through time. She works with the most ancient rocks preserved on the Earth’s surface to figure out the chemical structure and primordial evolution of the young Earth.
Douglas Rumble is a petrologist and geochemist with the Geophysical Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. He earned a BA from Columbia College and a PhD from Harvard University. He served as assistant professor at UCLA and on detail as a Program Director in the Earth Sciences Division of the US National Science Foundation. He worked as a Board Member of Geoscience World to provide top-quality electronic publishing technology to Earth Science Societies for their journals. Current research, led by E. D. Young (UCLA), is on development of Panorama, a high mass resolution mass spectrometer designed by P. A. Freedman and built by Nu Instruments Ltd. for the measurement of multiply substituted isotopologues of geochemical and atmospheric gases
To understand solar system evolution in general and how ours came to be, Scott Sheppard studies the dynamical and physical properties of small bodies, such as asteroids, comets, moons, trans-neptunian objects (bodies that orbit beyond Neptune), and free floating substellar objects. Sheppard received his B.A. in Physics in 1998 from Oberlin College and both his M.S. and Ph.D. in Astronomy from the University of Hawaii in 2001 and 2004 respectively.
Steve Shirey is interested in igneous petrology, isotope geochemistry, trace element geochemistry, and the geochemical evolution of the Earth's crust and mantle. He received his B.A. in 1972 from Dartmouth College, his M.S. in Geology in 1975 from the University of Massachusetts and his Ph.D. in Geochemistry from the State University of New York, Stony Brook in 1984.
Sean Solomon's research focuses on planetary geology and geophysics, seismology, marine geophysics, and geodynamics. His experience ranges from oceanographic expeditions on Earth to spacecraft missions to the Moon, Venus, Mars, and Mercury. As Principal Investigator for the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, Solomon heads a multi-institutional consortium of scientists and engineers who operate the small, efficient MESSENGER spacecraft, which launched in 2004. Solomon received his B.S. in Geophysics from the California Institute of Technology in 1966 and his Ph.D. in Geophysics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1971.
Andrew Steele uses traditional and biotechnological approaches for the detection of microbial life in astrobiology and solar system exploration. He received a Ph.D in biotechnology from the University of Portsmouth, U.K. in 1996, and a BSc in microbiology and biochemistry from the University of Central Lancashire, U.K. in 1992.
Dimitri Sverjensky is a Professor of Geochemistry in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at the Johns Hopkins University. Professor Sverjensky received his B. Sc. degree with First Class Honors from the University of Sydney (Australia) in 1973 and a Ph.D. from Yale University in 1980. He has worked in the fields of economic geology, isotope geochemistry and theoretical aqueous solution chemistry. In recent years, his research has focused on integrating theoretical and experimental studies of the geochemistry of the mineral-water interface, mainly with applications to environmental geochemistry and to the role of surface chemistry in the origin of life. He has been a Visiting Investigator since 2005.
Ying Wang is a geochemist, specializing in isotope geochemistry and biogeochemistry. She received her Ph.D at California Institute of Technology. Her current research focuses on hydrogen isotope fractionations in organic compounds using solid NMR analysis and theoretical modeling.
Alycia Weinberger wants to understand how planets form, so she observes young stars and their disks, the birthplaces of planets, as well as finding and studying planetary systems. She received her B.A. in Physics 1991 from the University of Pennsylvania and her Ph.D. in Physics in 1998 from the California Institute of Technology.
Chi Zhang's research is focused on analyzing the properties of C-O-H fluids in different geological environments, especially under high- temperature conditions. He has developed a model to predict the speciation of fluids in the Earth's crust and upper mantle through methodologies used in molecular dynamics and thermodynamics, and is now investigating the behavior of fluids in the Earth's deep interior at the Geophysical Laboratory.